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              2021考研英語二閱讀Text 4試題及答案解析

              2021-03-11 14:56:03| 來源:山西中公教育 點擊量: 165

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              2021考研初試已結束,山西考研網在考研初試后及時為各位考研考生梳理"2021考研英語二閱讀Text 4試題及答案解析(中公考研版)"內容~有需要的同學可以自行查看。

              【Text 4】

              We’re fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to a five-minute interaction, and deliberation can be not only extraneous but intrusive. In one study of the ability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate the instructor’s overall effectiveness. Their ratings correlated strongly with students’ end-of-semester ratings. Another set of participants had to count backward from 1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying their conscious working memory. Their ratings were just as accurate, demonstrating the intuitive nature of the social processing.

              Critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasons for their judgment, before giving the rating. Accuracy dropped dramatically. Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues, such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression. She found similar interference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of people and judged whether they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.

              Other research shows we’re better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection. “It’s as if you’re driving a stick shift,” says Judith Hall, a psychologist at Northeastern University, “and if you start thinking about it too much, you can’t remember what you’re doing. But if you go on automatic pilot, you’re fine. Much of our social life is like that.”

              Thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. College students’ ratings of strawberry jams and college courses aligned better with experts’ opinions when the students weren’t asked to analyze their rationale. And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details, but only if the decision was complex—when they had a lot of information to process.

              Intuition’s special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. In one study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four that tapped reflective thinking (discerning rules, comprehending vocabulary) and four that tapped intuition and creativity (generating new products or figures of speech). Then they rated the degree to which they had used intuition (“gut feelings,” “hunches,” “my heart”). Use of their gut hurt their performance or the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest. Sometimes the heart is smarter than the head.

              36. Nalini Ambaby’s study deals with .

              A. instructor student interaction

              B. the power of people’s memory

              C. the reliability of first impressions

              D. people’s ability to influence others

              37. In Ambaby’s study, rating accuracy dropped when participants .

              A. gave the rating in limited time

              B. focused on specific details

              C. watched shorter video clips

              D. discussed with on another

              38. Judith Hall mentions driving to show that .

              A. memory can be selective

              B. reflection can be distracting

              C. social skills must be cultivated

              D. deception is difficult to detect

              39. When you are making complex decisions, it is advisable to .

              A. follow your feelings

              B. list your preferences

              C. seek expert advice

              D. collect enough data

              40. What can we learn from the last paragraph?

              A. Generating new products takes time.

              B. Intuition may affect reflective tasks.

              C. Vocabulary comprehension needs creativity.

              D. Objective thinking may boost intuitiveness.

              【Text 4答案解析】

              36.【答案】C(the reliability of first impressions)

              【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞Nalini Ambaby可定位到第一段②句,②句In one study of the ability she dubbed “thin slicing,” the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors ...(已故心理學家納利尼·安巴迪(Nalini Ambady)在一項名為“薄片擷取”(thin slicing)的能力研究中,要求參與者觀看教授們10秒鐘的無聲視頻片段……)介紹了該研究的內容。根據“薄片擷取”(thin slicing)和“10秒視頻”(10-second video clips)可以得出,②句作為一個科學實驗,針對的是第一段①句We’re fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ...(我們很擅長根據第一印象、薄片式經驗來判斷一個人……)。C項the reliability of first impressions(第一印象的可靠程度)是對該實驗目的的準確概括。所以本題選C。

              37.【答案】B(focused on specific details)

              【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞accuracy dropped和Ambaby可定位到第二段②③句,③句是②句現象出現的原因。根據③句中deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues ... rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression(深思熟慮使他們專注于生動但具有誤導性的線索,……而不是讓微妙信號的復雜相互作用形成整體印象),B項focused on specific details(關注于具體的細節)是對③句的總結概括。所以本題選B。

              38.【答案】B(reflection can be distracting)

              【解析】本題為例證題。根據題干關鍵詞Judith Hall定位到第三段②句。例證題的解題思路是首先考慮在例子上文尋找觀點,找到第三段①句Other research shows we’re better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection(另一項研究表明,當我們依靠直覺而不是反思時,更能從薄片式信息中檢測出欺騙和性取向),②句的例子本身是“如果你在開手動擋,當你開始想太多時,你就不記得自己在做什么了”,B項reflection can be distracting(反思會分散注意力)是對①句觀點的提煉總結。所以本題選B。

              39.【答案】A(follow your feelings)

              【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞complex decisions可定位到第四段③句,其中And people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details(當人們被要求把注意力集中在他們的感覺而不是細節上時,他們做出的買車決定在客觀上更好也更能滿足個人需求……),focus on their feelings的同義表達是A項follow your feelings。所以本題選A。

              40.【答案】B(Intuition may affect reflective tasks.)

              【解析】本題為推斷題。根據題干關鍵詞the last paragraph定位到第五段,該段指出直覺的特殊力量只有在特定的情況下才會釋放,如預期那樣,僅憑直覺會影響他們在前四項任務中的表現,而在其他任務中則會有所幫助(Use of their gut hurt their performance or the first four tasks, as expected, and helped them on the rest),“gut”指代“intuition”,“the first four tasks”指代利用反思性思維(reflective thinking)的任務,即參與者在完成利用反思性思維(reflective thinking)的任務時會受到直覺的影響。因此,B項Intuition may affect reflective tasks(直覺或許會影響利用反思性思維的任務)總結概括了本段觀點。所以本題選B。

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